Document: Good Urban Governance through ICT: Issues, Analysis, and Strategies

Description

The World Bank invites comments from African social accountability practitioners on a draft handbook examining the role of ICT in promoting good governance practices. Entitled Good Urban Governance through ICT: issues, analysis and strategies, the handbook examines a wide range of issues in which ICT can play a key role in promoting accountability and service delivery. The handbook was compiled by the WB's Africa Urban and Water Sector Unit. Gaurav Relhan, one of the compilers, says technology helps well-informed citizens collaborate, exchange ideas and participate in real-time with their elected officials. Voters can have their voices heard and officials can incorporate this feedback in their decisions. For instance, through mobile phones and the Internet, a Facebook page or post, a Tweet or a YouTube video, a citizen now has the power to participate at his fingertips to improve outcomes and trap corruption. Examples include tracing expenditures to see if there is sufficient spending by region or sector; tracking procurement results to see if vendors seem to be getting too much business or charging too much; and on-the-ground pictures to show whether projects were actually completed.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD 3
SECTION I: URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND ICT 4
1.1. The Dimensions of Urban Change 4
1.2. The ICT Reality 6
ICT in the Urban System 7
SECTION II: ROLE OF ICT FOR CITY GROWTH, IMPROVED GOVERNANCE, AND SERVICE DELIVERY 9
2.1. Local Governance and Economic Development 10
Outline of Issues 10
What can ICT do? 11
2.2. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and Municipal Finance 17
Outline of Issues 17
What can ICT do? 18
2.3. Urban Poverty and Slum Upgrading 22
Outline of Issues 22
What can ICT do? 23
2.4. Urban Planning, Land and Housing 27
Outline of Issues 27
What can ICT do? 28
2.5. Urban Environment and Climate Change 32
Outline of Issues 32
What can ICT do? 33
2.6. Water and Sanitation Service Delivery 37
Outline of Issues 37
What can ICT do? 38
SECTION III: ICT TOOLS/APPLICATIONS FOR URBAN & WATER MANAGEMENT 43
3.1. E-Governance Tools 43
3.1.1. tool 1: e-revenue (e-billing, e-taxes) 44
3.1.2. tool 2: e-authorization (e-registration, e-permit, e-contract) 45
3.1.3. tool 3: e-procurement 46
3.1.4. tool 4: financial management systems 47
3.1.5. tool 5: e-citizen development: e-employment, e-health, e-education, etc 48
3.1.6. tool 6: e-municipality 49
general methodology for successful e-governance implementation 50
3.2. social accountability tools 51
3.2.1. tool 1: surveys (forecast/retrospective) 52
3.2.2. tool 2: citizen outreach 53
3.2.3. tool 3: digital publication of performance data 54
3.2.4. tool 4: e-participation mechanisms (blogs, discussion groups, social networking, etc) 55
general methodology for successful social accountability implementation 56
3.3. gis solutions 57
general methodology for successful gis implementation 59
SECTION IV: POSSIBLE WBG ROLE AND NEXT STEPS 60
4.1. menu of options for the wbg: suggestions from world bank practitioners 61
4.2. menu of options for the wbg: suggestions from readers 61

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