Document: ICT for Disaster Management

Description

The term ‘disaster’, meaning ‘bad star’ in Latin, is defined as an impact of a natural or man-made hazard that causes human suffering or creates human needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance.The word’s root is from astrology and implies that when the stars are in a bad position, a bad event is about to happen. In a recent document published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the Americas, a disaster is defined as ’a social crisis situation occurring when a physical phenomenon of natural, socio-natural or anthropogenic origin negatively impacts vulnerable populations ... causing intense, serious and widespread disruption of the normal functioning of the affected social unit’.

According to another widespread definition, disasters occur when hazards strike in vulnerable areas.

Table of Contents

 

LIST OF ACRONYMS V
FOREWORD VI
INTRODUCTION 1
DISASTER MANAGEMENT 5
ICT FOR DISASTER PREVENTION, MITIGATION AND PREPAREDNESS 6
Key Players in Disaster Warning 8
Channels Used for Disaster Warning 9
Radio and Television 9
Telephone (Fixed and Mobile) 10
Short Message Service 11
Cell Broadcasting 11
Satellite Radio 12
Internet/Email 13
Amateur and Community Radio 15
Sirens 15
GIS and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management 16
Planning 17
Mitigation 18
Preparedness 18
Case Study:The Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) for South-East Asia 18
ICT FOR DISASTER RESPONSE 22
Case Study 1: Sahana Disaster Management System in the Aftermath
of the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 and Pakistani Earthquake in 2005 22
Example 1: Tracing Missing Persons 23
Example 2: Coordinating Donor Groups 23
Example 3: Recording the Locations of Temporary Camps and Shelters 23
Case Study 2:Use of Internet in the Aftermath of the 1999 Earthquake in Turkey 23
Case Study 3: UNOSAT’S Role in Disaster Response During the 2004
Indian Ocean Tsunami 24
ICT FOR DISASTER RECOVERY 27
Specific Disaster Management Software 27
Case Study 1: Latin America 28
Case Study 2: Orissa, India 28
Case Study 3: South Africa 28
Other Software 28
FACTS 29
Disaster Information Networks 30
UNDP’s Tsunami Resources and Results Tracking System 30
India Disaster Resource Network 30
GIS in Disaster Recovery 31
Immediate Aftermath 31
Long Term 31
CONCLUSION 32
REFERENCES 34
ANNEX: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WORKING
IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT 37
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 45
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 47
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Comparison of Damage Caused by Three Recent Disasters 7
Table 2: Radio Communication Media Used in Disaster Warning and Management 12
Table 3: Comparison of Different Communication Channels Used in Disaster Warning 16
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Contribution of Disaster Management Efforts to MDG Achievement 2
Figure 2: Number of Disasters by Origin: Regional Distribution, 1995–2004 2
Figure 3: Regional Distribution of Disasters: By Triggering Hazards, 1995–2004 3
Figure 4: Large-Impact Disasters over the Last 30 Years 4
Figure 5: The Disaster Management Cycle 5
Figure 6: Difference Between an Ordinary (2D) Map and a Map with GIS Input 17
Figure 7: Implementation Plan of the Tsunami Early Warning System 19
Figure 8: AlertNet Website 21
LIST OF BOXES
Box 1: UNDP Supports Radio Programme to Reduce Tsunami Trauma 10
Box 2: Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) 13
Box 3: The Role of Media in Disaster Warning: Reuters AlertNet 20
Box 4: Sarvodaya.org in the Aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 25
Box 5: Blogs and Tsunami Response 26
Cover: ICT for Disaster Management